Tuesday, December 24, 2019
In order to show support for women in leadership, I will examine several different online resources. Within these sources, I will meticulously pull out key contexts in order to help better articulate the idea of women in leadership roles. As apart of my paper, I will include in my first section of the paper the misinterpretation of 1 Corinthians 14:34. In order to do so, I will be examining the text itself first, then going on to various online resources to gain a better idea of why Paul wrote this section. Ideally in writing this essay, I would like to gain a much better idea of women in the bible that have had leadership roles because it is important to understand in my opinion why women were or were not treated fairly in the context ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(1 Corinthians 14:35) I think this is very contradictory to other parts of the bible relating to the above passages, and to be quite frank about it, I do not think it is right for a woman to have to ask her husband to do something. If they feel obligated to do something, they should be able to do it. It seems that what is mentioned in 1 Corinthians 14 is almost completely different from what was mentioned in 1 Corinthians 11 because the tone was. Another important interpretation according to Piper is Ã¢â¬Å"the demand for a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s silence is in response to a local and specific group of womenÃ¢â¬ (Piper, 140-153). This explanation is centered on 1 Corinthians 14:33-36 and is focused towards quieting Ã¢â¬Å"noisy women, or uneducated unruly womenÃ¢â¬ (Piper, 140-153). How can it be appropriate, at least in my opinion, to make women be quiet because of their education or because they are standing up for something? I do not agree with these passages personally because it almost seems like a one- sided argument. Another problem with this understanding that I have is that it totally neglects the fact that men couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been unruly or uneducated. After all, God put us on this Earth to live as equals which is not represented fairly in these passages. It does not seem like there was Ã¢â¬Å"fairness to the womenÃ¢â¬ when the author Paul wrote 1 Corinthians (Piper, 140-153). The story of Deborah in Judges 4 is a very important passage in representing the idea of women in
Monday, December 16, 2019
Design of Compact Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for GPSK-PCS Operation Ho-yong KimÃ¢â¬â¢, Yong-nn Lee, Chung-ho Won, Hong-min Lcc Department of Electronics EngineeringKyon@ Univerrily hi-Dong, Yeongtong-Cu, Suwon-Si, Kyonggi-do, Korea email: hyounrsn@hotmail. com lnlraduetion In recent years, with the advance o f technology, the demand for an antenna operating a1 mutibands i s increasing rapidly. Such as GPS and K-PCS, The multi-hand antennas with one feeding pon use the multiple resonance technolagy[l] such antennal are difficult lo provide a good polarization efficiency for GPS signal reception. We will write a custom essay sample on Design of Compact Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna or any similar topic only for you Order Now So the integrated GPSIK-PCS dual-band antenna using two feeding pan has been proposed in this paper. Referenced dual-band antenna using two feeding pon has matched poiariration of integrated system.  but it has large size. Proposed antenna uses miniafurizalion technique that is to insect ilits. This technique is to increase elecVlcal surface length by slits. [3-5] Operating frequency o f proposed Bntenna is greatly lowered by slit^. Meander line patch and square ring patch with four diu o f proposed antenna are about 70% and 50% ofreferenced antenna size. The proposed antenna composed of a low-profile cylindrical monopole with a top-loaded meander line patch for K-PCS Operation, and a comer-truncated square-ring microstrip patch antenna with four-slits for GPS ooeration. Pmposed Antenna Design The geometry and design parameter of the proposed antenna for compact GPSIK-PCS operation i s presented in Figure I. The proposed antenna has the common ground plane, but i s fed by separate feeding pon. The antenns for GPS-hand i s realized by using a corner-truncated square-ring microstrip patch with four slits. The outer side length and inner ride length are40mm(L,)and IZmm() ~ ~ p % t i d printed on a rubrtrale o f thickness 1. 6mm(h) and y, relative peminiviry (e, :4. 4). The middle ofthe substrate is removed for inner rectangular d i t area ( b x b ) of patch. Feed position for right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) wave operation is placed along x-axis. and the distance of the probe feed away fram the patch center i s denoted as 6 . 6 m m ( / ) . The four-rlitr at the comers are of equal length I3. 5mm(S)and width Imm(w). Fig 2(a) shows simulated reNm loss of the proposed anlenna for GPS receiving antenna with various d i t lengths(S). It i s noted that the reSonant frequency rapidly lowered with increasingdesign parameter(S). In f h i ~ way, the excited surface current paths are lengthened in the propo~ed designs, and the operating frequency is greatly lowered. 0-7803-8302-8/04/$20. 00 IEEE 3529 02004 Also, the shorted meander line patch antenna with low-profile cylindrical monopole top is loaded at the center of square ring patch for K-PCS operation. For brbadband characteristic, cylindrical monopole has a large diameter of 6. 2mm(d,) and l e n ~ h 10. 7mm(h2). The eander line patch has a ride lengh Z l m m ( p ) and is connected to the common ground by two same shorting posh, which have a diameter of 2. 2mm(d2). By varying ofthe shorting ports diameter(d2), good impedance matching can easily be obtained. Figure 2(b) shows simulated retum loss for the p r a p ~ ~ e d K-PCS antenna with various slit lengthr(m,) of meander line patch. Meander line patch size can be reduced by increasing inserted slit length. Becaus e of the antenna for K-PCS operation interfere the axial mtio of GPS receiving antenna, the miniatufimion of GPS antenna is limited. According to the experiment, the patch size of GPS antenna for circular polarized operation must he over about twice the size of KPCS antenna with meander line suunurc. In the proposed designs, the bandwidth of3-dB axial mtio is about 13 MHz, which is much larger than that required for GPS operation at 1575 MHz. The measured axial ratio ofthe antenna for GPS operation i s presented in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows measured reÃ¢â¬ 101 of proposed antenna. The impedance bandwidths (. lOdB retum larr) are about lZOMH~(1744MHr-1864MH~)far K-PCS band and 60MHr (IS46MHr-1606MHz) for GPS-band. The isolation between the two feeding pons of the PCS and GPS elemenls is less than -17dB. Measured radiation panems of the proposed antenna at l8OOMHz and ISROMHz are presented in Figure 5 and 6, respectively. The K-PCS antenna radiation panem at IROOMHz shows a monopole radiation panem, 10 this fype of antenna is suitable for applications on a vehicular communication system. For the GPS anfenna at ISROMHz, good broadside band radiation panem is obtained. Far K-PCS operation the measured pea* antenna gains is about 2. 4dBi and t h c gain variations are within O. JdBi, for GPS operation the measured peak antenna gains is about 7. dBi and the vanations of gain does not exist. Conclusion Proposed antenna has a integrated slmcturc of microitrip patch antenna with two feeds for dual-band oprmtion(GPSiK-PCS). A low-profile cylindrical monopole with a shorted meander line patch i s loaded for K-PCS operation, which rhowr a linearly polarized monopole patkm with broadband characterirlic. Th e radiating clement for GPS operation is a novel square-ring microstip path with truncated comers with four slits, which provide circularly polarized braadrids radiation panemr. size reduction of proposed antenna is achieved by using slits. Meander line patch and square ring patch with four . lib of proposed antenna are about 70% and SO% of referenced antenna sire. As the proposed antenna has a compact size for dual band operation, it will be suitable for practical vehicular mobile communication antenna applications. REÃ¢â¬ Ce [I] R. Kronberger, H. Lindenmcier, L. Reiter, J. Hapf, Ã¢â¬ Multi hand planar Invencd-F C r a Antenna for Mobile Phone andGPS,Ã¢â¬ 2714p-Z717p,AP confer. 1999 3530  I. Y. Wu and K. L. Wong, Ã¢â¬Å"Two inlegraled stacked shorted patchantennas for DCSiGPS operations,Ã¢â¬ Micra wave Opt. Techno1 . Len. , Vol. 30. July, 2001. I31 S. Reed, L. Desclar, C. Terref, and S. Toutain, Ã¢â¬Å"Patch Antenna Size Reduction By Means Oflnductive Slots,Ã¢â¬ Micro wave Opt. Teehnol. Len. ,Vol29. Apri, 2001. 1 [41 J. Y. Wu and K. L. Wong, Ã¢â¬Å"Single-feed Square-ring Microstip Antenna wilh lruncated comers for Compact ~ircularpolarization Operation,Ã¢â¬ Electronics lea. , Vol. 34, May,1998. [ 5 ] W. S. Chen, C. K. Wu, and K. L. wong. IÃ¢â¬â¢ Novel Compact Circularly polarized Square Microstrip AntennqÃ¢â¬ IEEE Trans. ,Antennas Propagat. , Vol. 49, March, 2001, L, = 40mm, L, = 12mm, S = 13. 5mm, t = 5. 74mm. IY = I n Ã¢â¬ f = 6. 6Ã¢â¬ ³. p = Zlmnr, m, =ZOmm, ml =3. mm, d) = 6. 2mm, d* = 2. 2Ã¢â¬ ³. d, =9. 3mm h, = 1. 6mm. h2 =10. 7mm Fib. 1. Geomelly and dimiiiimi ofthe pmpanrd a n t m i l for CPSIK-PCS operation. (a) The variation against parameter S (b) The variation againsl parmnster m, Fig. 2. Simulated return loss wilh v~riour ImgthsiS) nnd vsriour slit lengthsim,). slit 3531 I E 4 , d B ! -2 1. 560 1. 565 1. 570 1. 575 1. 580 .Ã¢â¬ -15 FrequanollGHz , I . 1. 5 2. 0 ~r4Ã¢â¬ ³enwffi~ 2. 5 Fig. 3. The measured arid ratio. Fig 1 Measured r t b m loss of antenna. . (a) x-2 plane @) x-Y plane Fig 6. Measured radiation panem for GPS operation; f=1580MHz 3532 How to cite Design of Compact Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna, Papers
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Demonstrate the Impact of the new lease standard on the Financial reporting of both lessee and lessors. Answer: Introduction: The report is prepared for demonstrating the impact of the new lease standard on the financial reporting of both lessee and lessors. Impact of the new leased standard has been discussed in context of different industries. A new standard on lease that is IFRS 16 is published by International accounting standard boards (IASB). The new standard uses a single model by bringing most of the leases for lessees on balance sheet and thereby eliminating the difference between financing lease and operating lease (Collis et al., 2017). However, the distinction between financial and operating lease is retained and lessors accounting largely remain unchanged. It is so because the liabilities of company is potentially understated as there might be thousands worth of assets held by company under agreements operating lease are not incorporated clearly in the financial metrics. Rationale behind the introduction of new lease standard IFRS 16: Under the existing lease standard, the lease transactions are accounted by lessee as either operating or financial lease depending upon the tests and complexities of rules. The use of bright lines in practice resulted in nothing or all being recognized on the statement of financial position. The previous lease standard that is IAS 17 does not require operating lease to be featured on balance sheet of reporting entity. This has the consequence that the actual worth of liabilities and assets are not represented on the financial statements of entity. It is estimated by IASB that the total worth of commitments pertaining to lease stood at US $ 3.3 trillion and 85% of them do not appear on the balance sheet of entities (Osei, 2017). This has posed problems to the investors and other financial analysts as they cannot analyze and compute the actual worth of liabilities and assets since true economic reality is not presented. Implication of new lease standard for lessee and lessors: Leasing is the most widely used and an important financial solution used by most of organizations. The wide usage of leasing is attributable to the fact that companies are not required to incur large flow of cash for accessing and using equipments and property. Financial statement of lessee will be substanti8ally impacted with the introduction of new lease standard. In addition to financial reporting, there will also be considerable impact on system of information technology, assets financing, control and other processes. A vast number of items are leased by many companies such as power plant, offices, cell towers, retail stores and aircraft. Therefore, the new lease standard would greatly affect the lessee. However, the accounting of lessors will largely remain unchanged. Nevertheless, due to change in behavior and needs, they will experience impact on their products and business model. Impact on lessee: All the commonly used performance metrics and financial ratios such as asset turnover, current ratio, gearing ratio, earnings before interest and taxes, net income, earning per share, return on capital; employed, return on equity, interest cover and operating cash flow will be virtually affected by the new lease standard. There could be behavioral changes experienced by lessee as such impact on financial ratios will have considerable affect on borrowing costs, loan covenants and their credit ratings. Many organizations might be compelled by this impact to make reassessment of their certain lease versus buy decisions. For most lessees, the cost of implementation and compliance with the new lease standard would be significant and such costs would be more significant if the organization does not have an in house lease information system. There will be reduction in capital ratios and growth in balance sheet and consequently, increase in gearing ratio. In addition to this, changes will also be experienced in recognition and expenses pattern. Recognition pattern is about the acceleration of expenses of lease in relation to recognition pattern for operating leases today. Expenses pattern is related to replacement of rent expenses with depreciation and interest expenses (Sacarin, 2017). Entities that are likely to be greatly affected by IFRS 16 are those leasing big ticket assets such as manufacturing equipment, real estate, train, aircraft, ships and technology. There could be less impact for entities with several small leases such as small items of office furniture, personal computers, tablets and telephones. It is so because exemptions are offered by IASB on low value assets with a value of $ 5000 or less and such assets meeting the exception are not required to be realized on balance sheets. Impact on lessors: The existing and future leases by lessee and lessors needs to renegotiated and restructured. There should be reassessment of legal and business structures supporting leases for evaluation whether such leases are effective to organization in the current scenario such as special purpose entities and joint ventures (de Albuquerque et al., 2017). Compared to IAS 17, the lessors accounting would remain unchanged considerably under IFRS 16. However, due to changes in behavior and needs of some customers, it is expected that lessors would be affected in terms of lease products and business models. Judgment of management will be required for the application of estimates to determine standalone prices and identification of components for meeting the requirement of IFRS 16 to separate lease and components of non lease items and allocation of considerations to separate components. Lessees for separating lease and non lease components might not currently have data for which lessors might need to provide information to customers for lessee and lessors. It is required by both lessee and lessors to determine whether the right to use an asset is a component of separate lease in their contracts if the underlying assets are highly interrelated and dependent or if the lessee can benefit from the use of assets either with other resources or on its own (Joubert et al., 2017). Balance sheets will be grossed up by the new standard implementation and will change the presentation of cash flow and income statement. In the income statement, interest expense and rent expense will replace the rent expenses. This will have the consequence of increasing front load expenses and this would result in decreasing equity and earnings immediately when entering into lease as compared to operating lease. Given the fact that, operating lease have historically been off the balance sheet, requirement of lease data will increase. Additional data collection will be required for due to increased disclosure. A more expensive and different disclosures are required at both quantitative and qualitative level. Types of companies that is likely to be affected by the new lease standard: Every industry uses lease as its financial function for accessing the assets that are leased by them. Some of the industries that are heavy users of leases are retailers, professional services, airlines, wholesale, healthcare, entertainment, logistics and transport and telecommunication. Across all the industries, new standard will have considerable affect but the impact will differ. Retailers- Retailers are heavy users of real estate as they use lease options for stores. Implementation of new lease standard will have major impact on their renewal options, separation of lease and non lease components and payment options. The core business of retailer is to lease real estate and substantial judgment is required while retailers having economic incentive when renewing retail lease locations for reassessment and determination (Zeghal Lahmar, 2016). Moreover, retailers are required to separate lease elements from service charges due to implementation of new standard. Transport and logistics- Entities in logistics and transport often lease items such as train, aircraft, vehicles, trucks and real estate. Leases are often used in such industries for revenue generating activities. Substantial judgment would be required by reporting entities when they have economic incentive for renewing lease (Morales Zamora, 2017). Assets in this industry are leased combined with other services. In order to account for lease separate from service elements, lessees would be required to unbundle lease information and bundling of products by lessors. Telecommunication- A vast number of big ticket items such as cell towers, network equipment, fiber optic cables and satellite transponders are leased by telecom entities. For telecom entities, lease determination can be judgmental and complex. It is need to be determined by telecom entities whether physical distinct portion of an asset is controlled by leases. Due to need of unbundling multiple elements arrangement provided to customers, telecom entities would be required to combine the new standard of revenue recognition and new leases standard by considering both the standard interdependencies that would make it cost efficient (Demir Bas, 2017). Real estate and equipment lessors- Equipment and real estate lessors industry may not be considerably affected in their won accounting. However, due to change in the behaviors of customers, new lease standard would impact business model. For equipment and vehicle lessors, the lessees changing needs are more important compared to real estate. There would be greater workload for lessors and opportunities would be offered by changing new dynamics for new services and products. New lease standard would accelerate new development in the market such as increased focus on the services matters (Czajor Michalak, 2017). This would call shift in traditional business models of lessors. Conclusion: The implementation of new lease standard IFRS 16 will considerably change the accounting for leases of lessees and have far reaching implications on operations and finances of companies. Regardless of the industry in which entities are operating, IRFRS 16 requires lessees to recognize most of leases on their balance sheet. It can be inferred from the analysis of the implication of new lease standard that accounting of financial reporting of lessee would change significantly to lessors accounting treatment. Using of single accounting model for all leases by lessee comes with two exemptions in terms of short term leases and low value assets. Due to different capital structures of reporting entities, there will be further impact of the standard. However, for evaluating the impact of IFRS 16, assessments are required to be done based on circumstances and facts that are relevant to each entities. For instance, the entities renting office space that are treated as on operating lease will b e greatly impacted compared to entities purchasing office space. Therefore, it can be concluded that certain industries will be more impacted compared to other. References list: Collis, J., Jarvis, R., Skerratt, L. (2017). The role and current status of IFRS in the completion of national accounting rulesEvidence from the UK.Accounting in Europe,14(1-2), 235-247. Czajor, P., Michalak, M. (2017). Operating Lease Capitalization-Reasons and its Impact on Financial Ratios of WIG30 and sWIG80 Companies.Przedsi?biorczo i Zarz?dzanie,18(1, cz. 1 Practical and Theoretical Issues in Contemporary Financial Management), 23-36. de Albuquerque, F. H. F., Marcelino, M. M., Rodrigues, N. M. B., de Almeida Cariano, A. J. R. (2017). Accounting for lease transactions: analysis of possible lobbying in the issuing of IFRS 16.Revista de Educao e Pesquisa em Contabilidade,11(4). Demir, Z., Bas, E. (2017). THE EFFECT OF TAS 17 LEASING STANDARD AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW IFRS 16 LEASES STANDARD ON THE AIRLINE COMPANIES.PressAcademia Procedia,3(1), 153-173. Joubert, M., Garvie, L., Parle, G. (2017). Implications of the New Accounting Standard for Leases AASB 16 (IFRS 16) with the Inclusion of Operating Leases in the Balance Sheet.Journal of New Business Ideas and Trends,15(2), 1-11. Morales-Daz, J., Zamora-Ramrez, C. (2017). Effects of IFRS 16 on Key Financial Ratios: A New Methological Approach Osei, E. (2017). THE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD (FASB), AND THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD (IASB) SINGS SIMILAR TUNE: COMPARING THE ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF NEW IFRS 16 WITH THE IAS 17, AND THE NEW FASB MODEL ON LEASES.Journal of Theoretical Accounting Research,13(1). Sacarin, M. (2017). IFRS 16 Leasesconsequences on the financial statements and financial indicators.Audit Financiar,15(145), 114-122. Zeghal, D., Lahmar, Z. (2016). The Impact of IFRS Adoption on Accounting Conservatism in the European Union.International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting,6(1), 127-160.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Nostalgia for the black magic Review Paper Essay on Nostalgia for the black magic I do not like the theme of the Apocalypse. In life and so many problems that even on this occasion a lot of thinking. Im not inclined to be subjected to mass psychosis about it and very skeptical of many movies, books, predictions on this subject. What can be Therefore, even myself I can not answer the question that I was interested in this book. When I received it (to order it through the Internet), then again after reading the summary, even he felt sad: this book I hardly read, its not mine. But when I started to read I can not say that I felt delight or horror of reading. Even difficult to formulate the range of feelings that I experienced while reading. First of all, I will say that the book is clever, it is written, of course, very interesting, educated writer. It a huge reservoir of metaphors, allusions, refers us to the culture of our civilization: the myths, the Bible, to contemporary literature. Therefore, the reader is better read, the more interesting will be the book fo r him. In addition, it is written is not boring, boring language, easy to read (especially the first book), if the word easy in general can be applied to the book, which tells about the destruction of the world. So, to represent the end of light on Revaleku , you need to forget what we have shown in the acclaimed film recently about the end of the world. In his version, none of this would be: the world does not break down in a few hours, like a cardboard box (the physical world is much stronger than tipped), and Noahs Ark will be saved is not the best part of it. And his version of me closer. It would be too easy if everything happened as in the film. In Nostalgia for the Black Magic is different. Nothing strikes our fancy. Nothing is at odds with our sophisticated brain that if someone secretly preparing for this event. First, terrible heat. Then go heavy rains. Are you surprised? And I was not surprised. This is talking all the media. I have the first two books have the impression that I watched the news this week. Flooding, fires, riots, sudden cooling, again pogroms. Hysteria sectarians ready for the idea to tear apart the baby. Experiments military against the civilian population, muta nts (or is it a monster, or is it biblical characters we still do not surprise them: why not settle Leviathan under the Eiffel Tower?). Enormous genetic catalogs, which included almost all of inhabiting the planet. Nothing happens beyond that, what we are internally ready. Only the dead are sometimes here and there are seen in the streets torn city. But worse are just living that turn into monsters more terrifying Leviathan. They do not just rob and kill, they refined rape old women, women and children defecating on their fragile body in convulsions. Natural disaster manifests in people basest feelings. It breaks into pieces all the usual ideas about the world, not only blurs the scope of causal, but the space-time relationship. Sami outlines the I becomes blurred, and the hero is constantly talking about the blurring and is not certain of his I, of expanding its own identity. And inadvertently pose the question: what do we die from natural and civilization disasters, or from thems elves, from that abomination that lurks within us (sometimes unconsciously)? Or we have no choice, and mankind is really cornered? We will write a custom essay sample on Nostalgia for the black magic Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Nostalgia for the black magic Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Nostalgia for the black magic Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In the novel, the enemy is always present in various guises (since the elixir of Satan Hoffmann I had not read anything like it!). And through all of the story is the idea that death comes from the depths of the I , the enemy is not on the outside, but inside, in a secret I am. The third book I am personally and leads to this, alas, joyless conclusion. The world is not sunk into oblivion, something that was left of him. For example, in the castle of Chambord created the New Kingdom, which is headed by the king Obsul addict holding a terrified everyone. That, and his court, the multitude of monsters both literally and figuratively. . A new world is so terrible that even the gods came to die among people The novel ends with optimistic (?): The hero, the artist, escaping from Chambord, observes that the weather is getting better, and he was in the end still alive. But personally I have optimistic feelings towards the end of the novel does not remain at all. There was only about physical fatigue from the fact that the hero is experiencing. P.S I think that the book later re-read, it is very much important, that does not appear at the first reading.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The Difference Between Homology and Homoplasy Two common terms used in the science of evolution areÃ homology and homoplasy. While these terms sound similar (and indeed have a shared linguistic element), they are quite different in their scientific meanings. Both terms refer to sets of biological characteristics that are shared by two or more species (hence the prefix homo), but one term indicates that the shared characteristic came from a common ancestor species, while the other term refers to a shared characteristic that evolved independently in each species.Ã Homology Defined The term homology refers to biological structures or characteristics that are similar or the same. These characteristics are foundÃ on two or more different species when those characteristics can be traced to a common ancestor. An example of homology is seen in the forelimbs of frogs, birds, rabbits, and lizards. Although these limbs have a different appearance in each species, they all share the same set of bones. This same arrangement of bones has been identified in fossils of a very old extinct species,Ã Eusthenopteron, which was inherited by frogs, birds, rabbits, and lizards.Ã Homoplasy Defined Homoplasy, on the other hand, describes a biological structure or characteristic that two or more different species have in common that was not inherited from a common ancestor. A homoplasy evolves independently, usually due to natural selection in similar environments or filling the same type of niche as the other species which also have that trait. A common example often cited is the eye, which developed independently in many different species.Ã Divergent and Convergent Evolution Homology is a product of divergent evolution. This means that a single ancestor species split, or diverges, intoÃ two or more species at some time in its history. This occurs due to some type of natural selection or environmental isolation that separates the new species from the ancestor. The divergent species now begin to evolveÃ separately, but they still retain some of the characteristics of the common ancestor. These shared ancestral characteristics are known as homologies. Homoplasy, on the other hand, is due toÃ convergent evolution. Here, different species develop, rather than inherit, similar traits. This may happen because the species are living in similar environments, filling similar niches, or through the process of natural selection. One example of convergent natural selection is when a species evolves to mimic the appearance of another, such as when a non-poisonous species develop similar markings to a highly venomous species. Such mimicry offers a distinct advantage by deterring potential predators. The similar markings shared by the scarlet kingsnake (a harmless species) and the deadly coral snake is an example of convergent evolution.Ã Homology Versus Homoplasy Homology and homoplasy are often difficult to identify, since both may be present in the same physical characteristic. The wing of birds and bats is an example where both homology and homoplasy are present. The bones within the wings are homologous structures that are inherited from a common ancestor. All wings include a type of breastbone, a large upper arm bone, two forearm bones, and what would be hand bones. This basic bone structure is found in many species, including humans, leading to the correct conclusion that birds, bats, humans, and many other species share a common ancestor.Ã But the wings themselves are homoplasies, since many of the species with this shared bone structure, including humans, do not have wings. From the shared ancestor with a certain bone structure, natural selection eventually led to the development of birds and bats with wings that allowed them to fill a niche and survive in a particularÃ environment. Meanwhile, other divergent species eventuallyÃ developed the fingers and thumbs necessary to occupy a different niche.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Path to Legalization for Illegal Immigrants in the US Should the United States provide a path to legalization for illegal immigrants? The issue has been at the forefront of American politics for years, and the debate shows no signs of abating. What does a nation do with the millions of people residing in its country illegally? History of Immigrating to the US Illegal immigrants, often referred to as illegal aliens, are defined by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 as people who are not citizens or nationals of the United States. They are foreign nationals who come to the United States without following the legal immigration process to enter and remain in the country; in other words, anyone born in a country other than the United States to parents who are not United States citizens. The reasons for immigrating vary, but generally, people are looking for better opportunities and a higher quality of life than they would have in their native countries. Illegal immigrants do not have the proper legal documentation to be in the country, or they have overstayed their time allotted, perhaps on a tourist or student visa. TheyÃ cannot vote, and they cannot receive social services from federally funded programs or social security benefits; they cannot hold United States passports. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 provided amnesty to 2.7 illegal immigrants already in the United States and established sanctions for employers who knowingly hired illegal aliens. Additional laws were passed in the 1990s to help curb the growing number of illegal aliens, but they were largely ineffective. Another bill for immigration reform was introduced in 2007 but ultimately failed. It would have provided legal status to approximately 12 million illegal immigrants. President Donald Trump has gone back and forth on the immigration issue, going so far as to offer a merit-based legal immigration system. Nevertheless, Trump says he is intent on restoring integrity and the rule of law to our borders, and prompted the longest government shutdown to date (34 days) with his demand of funding for a southern border wall. A Path Toward Legalization The path toward becoming a legal US citizen is called naturalization; this process is overseen by the US Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Service (BCIS). There are four paths to legal status for undocumented, or illegal, immigrants. Path 1: Green Card The first path to becoming a legal citizen is to obtain a Green Card by marrying a USÃ citizen or a lawful permanent resident. But, according to Citizenpath, if the foreign spouse and children or stepchildren entered the United States without inspection and remained in the United States, they must leave the country and conclude their immigration process through US consulates abroad to obtain the green card. More importantly, says Citizenpath, If the immigrating spouse and/or children over 18 years of age resided in the United States unlawfully for at least 180 days (6 months) but less than one year, or they remained more than one year, they could then be automatically barred from re-entry to the United States for 3-10 years respectively once they leave the United States. In some cases, these immigrants can apply for a waiver if they can prove extreme and unusual hardship.Ã Path 2: DREAMers The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals is a program established in 2012 to protect illegal immigrants who came to the United States as children. Donald Trumps administration in 2017 threatened to undo the act but has yet to do so. The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act was first introduced in 2001 as bipartisan legislation, and its main provision was to provide permanent resident status upon completion of two years of college or service in the military. The American Immigration Council states that with the country currently gripped by political polarization, bipartisan support for the DREAM Act has waned. In turn, more narrow proposals have circulated that either restrict eligibility for permanent residency to a smaller group of young people or offer no dedicated path to permanent residency (and, eventually, US citizenship). Path 3: Asylum Citizenpath says that asylum is available to illegal immigrants who have suffered persecution in his or her home country or who has a well-founded fear of persecution if he or she were to return to that country.Ã PersecutionÃ must be based on one of the following five groups: race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. Also according to Citizenpath, requirements for eligibility include the following: You must be present in the United States (by legal or illegally entry); you are unable or unwilling to return to your home country due to past persecution or have a well-founded fear of future persecution if you return; the reason for persecution is related to one of five things: race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and you are not involved with an activity that would bar you from asylum. Path 4: U Visas The U Visa - a non-immigrant visa - is reserved for crime victims who have assisted law enforcement. Citizenpath says U Visa holders have legal status in the United States, receive employment authorization (work permit) and even a possible path to citizenship.Ã The U Visa was created by the US Congress in October 2000Ã by the passage of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act. To qualify, an illegal immigrant must have suffered substantial physical or mental abuse as a result of having been a victim of a qualifying criminal activity; must have information concerning that criminal activity; must have been helpful, is being helpful or is likely to be helpful in the investigation or prosecution of the crime; and the criminal activity must have violated US laws.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Funding Education - Essay Example Funding Education The university has principled values that is inculcated in all the students. Honesty, efficiency, exceptionality, and modesty are inscribed in students during the course of study. Every employer looks for an honest person. Now, being that the university is known for producing people of unquestionable integrity one would find it pleasurable and an honor to be part of this fraternity (British qualifications, 457). Employers also do not only want results, but they are impressed with exceptionality: a thing that the university inculcates in the course of study. The university teaches on how one can become innovative hence remarkable achievement in any field of endeavor. Queen Mary University is reach in diversity with an international outlook. This aspect of the university makes in a good ground for interaction and a place of multi-cultural experience. The university also has various exchange programs with many universities in other countries of the world. The university has such programs to help in the expansion of the worldview of its students. The grandaunts of this university are always diverse in opinion and they are often prepared to serve in any part of the world because of the nature of socialization in this great university. The university is not streamlined to the course work but it also gives the students the opportunity to interact widely and to experience the rest of the world.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Education - Research Paper Example Twenty-one questions answered on a scale apply as the measurement tool to measure job satisfaction. In addition, factor analysis in the nature of varimax rotation facilitates the grouping of the survey questions on six major factors. These are opportunity for autonomy and growth, quality of supervision, career advancement opportunities, pay benefits, physical and job stress and job security. Questions used in the National Health and Retirement Survey serve to find out in this survey of intentions to quit or leave current positions. A panel of experts reviews the survey to gauge content, format, readability and usability. Finally, a test on the project involving nurses from different environments occurs. Data collection is takes place through a descriptive questionnaire of twenty one questions measured on a scale out of seven. The overall response rate is one thousand, five hundred and seventy four respondents. There is the use of descriptive statistics to compares BS and AD educates Registered Nurses. Variables measured include job satisfaction and duration of career. All the nursing variables finally get comparison by application of age cohorts. 91.5% of the one thousand, five hundred and seventy four respondents are working nurses and complete the remaining survey questions (McIntosh et al., 2005). There is exclusion of some nurses from the survey leaving a total of one thousand and thirty nine nurses whose responses contribute to the findings. Four hundred and ninety three nurses list AD as their highest level of education. On the other hand, five hundred and forty six list BS as their highest education level. AD and BS nurses work in different environments with BS nurses working in hospitals while AD nurses work in private care. BS educated nurses cite more job satisfaction in terms of career growth and longevity. BS nurses
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Environmental Science Essay Although attempting to subdivide existing farm plots and redistribute them may be considered suitable for the purposes of remediating food insecurity and rural poverty, there exists a significant amount of controversy over such a practice due to the issues such redistribution entail. For example, the redistribution of land would require that the distributing entity pick and choose claims and rights to land at their discretion, and such claims can range from historic, ancestral or even from Ã¢â¬Å"ownership of the till. Ã¢â¬ Land reform has met much resistance from even the most impoverished numbers of developing countries, and it would be difficult to attempt redistribution without shaking up the foundations of property rights. Farming co-ops provide a distinct advantage for farmers. First of all, they provide them the opportunity to act as a group, giving them a collective bargaining power that they do not possess as individuals and allows them to act in unison in seizing market opportunities while being able to manage risks together. In effect, they can leverage their interests better when united as a co-op and it is this asset that has brought success to the likes of the Ocean Spray Cranberry growers and the farmers of Sunkist. (Gable, 2006; Hieu, 2008) Opening up new land is perhaps the most rapidly actionable means of increasing the food supply for a growing population, but this also poses a liability with regards to environmental impact. The problem with agriculture, especially the large-scale grain-based industrial monoculture which has been developed to feed most of the world, is that it is largely unsustainable and has a detrimental effect on soil fertility. In the first half of the 20th century, a large portion of the American Midwest was reduced to desert due to aggressive expansion of the wheat growing agriculture. (Manning, 2004) As such, what is needed is not the expansion of the present industrial agriculture, but the development of techniques and technologies to improve farming so that yields are better, but without compromising sustainability. Pursuing job opportunities in the city is not entirely perfect, but it is a desirable direction towards the development of compact communities and urban density. When combined with practices such as permaculture, which is the development of perennial agricultural systems that resemble the systems found in natural ecology (Holmgren, 2003), compact communities effectively curtail many of the environmentally adverse effects of sprawl and the wastefulness of imposing distance between food production, residential zoning and urban sectors. (Sightline Institute, n. d. ) Ultimately, what is needed to address the needs of a growing population in the developing world is not the application of population control measures, or a voluntary call to asceticism, but the institution of developmental policies that recognize the needs and wants of human society on terms that are just to developing nations and corrective to developed ones. Alex Steffen (2006) notes that it is wrong to think we can talk developing nations out of pursuing their dreams, and deny them of the material luxury that citizens of developed nations take for granted. Therefore, what is necessary is bright green developmental policy, founded upon the idea that economic luxury continue without rendering the planet an uninhabitable wasteland. This would require cradle-to-cradle designs, closed-loop industrial systems and self-sustaining infrastructure, much of which is already possible today. The future is already here, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just not well distributed. REFERENCES Gable, C. (2006, October). Ã¢â¬Å"Fields of Power; Farming Co-Ops the Future of Biodiesel,Ã¢â¬ Organic Producer. Retrieved October 9, 2008 from: http://www. organicproducermag. com/index. cfm? fuseaction=feature. displayfeature_id=43 Hieu, T. (2008, July 27) Ã¢â¬Å"Farming co-ops may be answer to rural poverty. Ã¢â¬ Vietnam Business News. Retrieved October 9, 2008 from: http://www. vnbusinessnews. com/2008/07/farming-co-ops-may-be-answer-to-rural. html Manning, R. (2004) Against the Grain: How Agriculture Hijacked Civilization. New York, New York: North Point Press. Holmgren, D. (2003) Permaculture: Principles Pathways Beyond Sustainability. Hepburn Springs, Victoria, Australia: Holmgren Design Services. Sightline Institute. (n. d. ) Ã¢â¬Å"Build Complete, Compact Communities. Ã¢â¬ Sightline Institute. Retrieved October 8, 2008 from: http://www. sightline. org/research/sust_toolkit/fundamentals/great_places Steffen, A. (Ed. ) (2006) Worldchanging: A UserÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide for the 21st Century. New York: Abrams, Inc.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Nearly one sixth of all the human beings on Earth live in India. Officially titled the Republic of India, itÃ¢â¬â¢s located in Asia and is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean. The countries that border it are Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, China and Bhutan. The Himalayas border India too. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s most spoken language is Hindi. Some other languages are Oriya Tamil and Telugu. The main religion in India is Hindus, or followers of Hinduism. They worship gods, goddesses, or deities. In Hindus, people believe that after the body dies physically, the soul is reborn to a different form. Some other religions are Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth has brought challenges to the environment. Waters have been badly polluted and many acres have been cleared for farming. The Ganges River is the most polluted river in India and the world! Many animal habitats have been destroyed and many animals have been killed. Everyone has some kind of pattern that goes on in their daily life. One daily pattern might be going to a job. Another could understand the layout of the city, so you could know where to go day to day. Without understanding the pattern, your life would be very hard, because you would be asking for directions all the time. Knowing how basic services are provided in your area is also important. For instance, you need to know where and when to get food. Mahatma Gandhi, he was called Ã¢â¬Å"MahatmaÃ¢â¬ because it means great soul. He started a movement for civil rights. When he went back to India people heard about his actions in South Africa and made him famous in India and on his arrival in India he was treated like a hero. Gandhi had come up with a philosophy of struggle for political and human rights through non-violence. India :: essays research papers Nearly one sixth of all the human beings on Earth live in India. Officially titled the Republic of India, itÃ¢â¬â¢s located in Asia and is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean. The countries that border it are Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, China and Bhutan. The Himalayas border India too. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s most spoken language is Hindi. Some other languages are Oriya Tamil and Telugu. The main religion in India is Hindus, or followers of Hinduism. They worship gods, goddesses, or deities. In Hindus, people believe that after the body dies physically, the soul is reborn to a different form. Some other religions are Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth has brought challenges to the environment. Waters have been badly polluted and many acres have been cleared for farming. The Ganges River is the most polluted river in India and the world! Many animal habitats have been destroyed and many animals have been killed. Everyone has some kind of pattern that goes on in their daily life. One daily pattern might be going to a job. Another could understand the layout of the city, so you could know where to go day to day. Without understanding the pattern, your life would be very hard, because you would be asking for directions all the time. Knowing how basic services are provided in your area is also important. For instance, you need to know where and when to get food. Mahatma Gandhi, he was called Ã¢â¬Å"MahatmaÃ¢â¬ because it means great soul. He started a movement for civil rights. When he went back to India people heard about his actions in South Africa and made him famous in India and on his arrival in India he was treated like a hero. Gandhi had come up with a philosophy of struggle for political and human rights through non-violence.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Two ladies wished to sit near one of the managers; the manager was unaware of this. As everyone took their seats at the tables, only one of the ladies was able to sit at the same table as the manager. The lady who was not able to sit on the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s table became quite upset and the following day at work refused to speak to the other girl. All the colleagues in the office who were aware of the situation did not pay too much attention to the dispute as they thought it would pass the next day, however as the week went on, the dispute continued and then other parties became involved in taking sides. What communication theories apply to these problems? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s job to point people in the right direction with clear, coherent, and consistent communication designed and planned thoughtfully and in advance. The leader of today thus has to lead with a clear direction in mind, and at the same time, ensure that the rest of the team understands which direction they are going. It is only when the whole entire team, together with the leader are working towards a common goal and final destination that success can really be achieved. Communication is thus essential because leaders must be able to communicate the goals and directions to the team other than being able to define it. Finally, they must communicate in such a way that the team will be inspired and motivated to take action. What organizational theories or perspectives are apparent? Principle; this is a narrower process of developing and maintaining procedures. This principle gives clear structure and rules which considers changing environment. It applies to the organization, powers, duties and its functions. In relationship to organizations today we do see that there is a rigid form of rules and power being installed by organizations such as the Unity of command. What information is missing? In week two the atmosphere became quite volatile and the work rate of the staff was definitely affected. In the case I encountered at work, I believed the conflict was just a clash of personalities between the two people concerned, however as the conflict evolved there became a deeper meaning to the reasons behind the problem, which moved onto to needs and expectations. What assumptions are we making about the organization, its people, and their problems? Lack of communication skills training. Lack of confidence in the quality, attitude, and management to the staff. Good idea to hire positive personalities that are good with people. This will help the company build a positive image for itself. Sensitivity Who or what appears to be most responsible for the communication problems? Good communication is the key to a successful business. Identifying the signs of communication problems is the first step in solving communication issues. Some of the things to look for are mistakes, apathy, lack of cooperation, frequent complaining, and poor communication can increase the issues. Diagnosing the problem and finding ways to lessen the impact can help reduce conflict and restore business productivity What are the shared realities in the organization? Empathy. The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Before make decision I think leader should think as the way employees think then they can make intelligent decisions Are the principal individuals good communicators? Everyone needs to take the time to listen and reflect on what is being said, good communication requires everyone to participate fully. Knowledge of a culture is key to business success and to recognize differences sometimes requires you to put aside your own sensitivities to do what is necessary to work together. Are the principals in this case assuming responsibilities for the communication behaviors? No. Both the manager and the employee have the responsibility of seeking clarification whether they understand each other to minimize conflicts between them. Skills What skills do the case principals exhibit? Analytical problem solving skills. Make decisions based on well reasoned assumptions. Alert to personal characteristics and relationships among the principals of the case. What additional skills are needed? Understanding the situation in which the problem is located. Sort out the relevant from the irrelevant, facts from the assumptions and goals from actions, and organize the issues into a clear exposition of the problems at hand. How could these skills be developed? Through understanding SWOT (strengths weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. It helps to convert wish statements into concrete attainable objectives. What overall organizational skills are lacking? The skill of making logical consistencies with the situation analysis that was done. What are the major organizational strengths? Qualitative and quantitative analytical skills, including problem identification skills, data handling skills and critical thinking skills. Application skills, using various tools, techniques and theories. Oral communication skills, including speaking, listening and debating skills. Values What is important or valuable to the involved individuals? Being able to understand and deal with the different viewpoints and perspectives of the other employees on their team Do they share similar values? No. Some need to display Ã¢â¬Ëaggressive hospitality,Ã¢â¬â¢ that is, be encouraged to provide good customer service to other employees well beyond their expectations. How would you describe the culture of the organization? Good communication flow, its diversity and various languages. Having people with different background and skills is one of the most important benefits for one organization. Are the individual and organizational goals compatible? Yes. Everyone is working together and is ready to give and take, help and support one another because the main focus is to accomplish their mission. All the team members have a common goal to achieve. Develop alternatives and test the Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ of possible solutions What should be done? Everyone needs to have a brainstorm session to find a solution for the problem, that way there is high probability of obtaining many different and creative ideas. This effort enables the team to obtain many alternatives and implement the best action plan and assign the tasks to the people involved. How many alternatives can be generated? 5. They can use MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of human needs and it can be classified into five categories (physiological, security, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization).
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The New York Times has reported that eating fish in a regular diet has more benefits. The article explains that the Harvard WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health study says people that eat fish once a week had a 42 percent less likelihood to develop macular degeneration that was age related than people that ate fish less than once a month. Macular degeneration is an inflammatory disease and fish has the omega 3 fatty acid that reduces the inflammation (Rabin, 2011). The study was based on 39,876 women that were in their mid-life which was 99 percent of these women participating. The participants were handed a questionnaire in 1993 that had a detailed food frequency to fill out. These questionnaires needed these women to list an average of consumption over the past year of different foods with a specific portion size. These foods that needed to be listed were how much of tuna fish, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish were eaten. These women were told to record how much, on an average, was eaten over this past year. The study took 10 years to follow up and only 235 of the 39,876 people developed macular degeneration. This is an eye disease that is progressive and is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly population (Rabin, 2011). The study findings were that the intakes of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids along with other dietary fats had been adjusted for the total of the energy intake using the residual methods. The intakes were categorized into tertiles that enhanced the stability estimates. The categories were an overall basis on the distribution of nutrients of all the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s intakes. Tertiles were also adjusted for trans-unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. sided P-values and 95 percent of CIÃ¢â¬â¢s were also calculated. Also performed were the tests of interaction to evaluate the null hypothesis. These tests were of no differences in the association of the w-3 and the w-6 fatty acids (Rabin, 2011). The women that reported eating one or more servings of fish a week had a 42 percent less chance of developing macular degeneration than the women that ate less once a month per serving of fish. The most benefits that were found were by eating dark meat fish and canned tuna. These studies are prone to have a measurement of error which tends to have an underestimate in any association of diet with the risks of AMD. Any changes of the dietary intakes would likely be nondifferential to the AMD end point and would have a true association. The end point was based primarily on the self report of the participants. The data was based on a large population of many different women that had no prior diagnosis of any AMDÃ¢â¬â¢s and that regular intake of EPA, DHA, and fish had a significant reduction of risk of AMD. This appears to be the strongest evidence that support the role of the w-3 fatty acids and reduced the number of people that had advanced AMD (Rabin, 2011). The findings in this article were appropriate in the findings that eating fish once a week reduced the risk of the development of macular degeneration and slowed the progression of some that had early signs of the disease. The hypothesis along with the P-value that was used played a big part in determining the out come of this study. In conclusion, this study has proven that eating fish once a week can and will help to prevent the eye disease Macular Degeneration (Rabin, 2011).
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Within his essay of The Damned Human Race, author Mark Twain powerfully declares that the human race is both flawed and corrupt, and that people actually should be classified as Ã¢â¬Å"lower animalsÃ¢â¬ rather than the formerly known Ã¢â¬Å"higher animals.Ã¢â¬ Twain does not hold claim to a Darwinian or creation standpoint, but rather draws conclusions from his own observations in performed experiments. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"man is the cruel animal,Ã¢â¬ and that we can attribute this to his moral character. However, there appears to be another side which contradicts his findings. Perhaps man is indeed the Ã¢â¬Å"highest animal,Ã¢â¬ but possesses something which other animals do not. Twain claims that his observations are based on experiments executed in the London Zoological Gardens. With these examinings, he went on to state that humans displayed a variety of shortcoming not seen in other animals. His first point was that humans were cruel, while other animals were not. This was backed by the story of the hunter killing seventy-two buffalo, and eating only part of one. He contradicted this by experimenting with anacondas and calves. The anaconda only killed what it needed, as opposed to the Earl. This seemed to suggest to Twain that the man descended from the anaconda, and not the other way around. Perhaps the Earl did not respect the buffalo, which is true. But does it mean that all humans always kill to be cruel and wasteful? Or could some animals exhibit signs of TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"cruelty?Ã¢â¬ Many individuals in the world today are very caring for each other, as well as other animals. They show the utmost kindness for one another and the planet they live on. On the other hand, there are many species of animals that kill just because they can. Part of the reasoning behind this is that numerous animals have tendencies of aggressiveness. There is no reasoning behind it, but is clearly found in their innate and learned behaviors. And what of war? The auth... Free Essays on Damned Human Race Free Essays on Damned Human Race Within his essay of The Damned Human Race, author Mark Twain powerfully declares that the human race is both flawed and corrupt, and that people actually should be classified as Ã¢â¬Å"lower animalsÃ¢â¬ rather than the formerly known Ã¢â¬Å"higher animals.Ã¢â¬ Twain does not hold claim to a Darwinian or creation standpoint, but rather draws conclusions from his own observations in performed experiments. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"man is the cruel animal,Ã¢â¬ and that we can attribute this to his moral character. However, there appears to be another side which contradicts his findings. Perhaps man is indeed the Ã¢â¬Å"highest animal,Ã¢â¬ but possesses something which other animals do not. Twain claims that his observations are based on experiments executed in the London Zoological Gardens. With these examinings, he went on to state that humans displayed a variety of shortcoming not seen in other animals. His first point was that humans were cruel, while other animals were not. This was backed by the story of the hunter killing seventy-two buffalo, and eating only part of one. He contradicted this by experimenting with anacondas and calves. The anaconda only killed what it needed, as opposed to the Earl. This seemed to suggest to Twain that the man descended from the anaconda, and not the other way around. Perhaps the Earl did not respect the buffalo, which is true. But does it mean that all humans always kill to be cruel and wasteful? Or could some animals exhibit signs of TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"cruelty?Ã¢â¬ Many individuals in the world today are very caring for each other, as well as other animals. They show the utmost kindness for one another and the planet they live on. On the other hand, there are many species of animals that kill just because they can. Part of the reasoning behind this is that numerous animals have tendencies of aggressiveness. There is no reasoning behind it, but is clearly found in their innate and learned behaviors. And what of war? The auth...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
'Dear John' by Nicholas Sparks Book Review Dear John is trademark Nicholas Sparks - romantic, sappy, sad, and redeeming. The book revolves around the love story of an army sergeant who falls in love shortly before 9/11. Dear John is one of Sparks most popular stories, and became known to an even wider audience after it was made into a movie in 2010 starring Amanda Seyfried and Channing Tatum.Ã Summary Dear JohnÃ starts in the present day, in terms of the books timeline, with John watching Savannah from afar. He is thinking about how much he loves her and why their relationship dissolved. Lost in a train of thought, John then takes the reader back in time and narrates the story of their love. The whole book is narrated by John, who joined the army to get away from his reclusive father and to straighten out. While he is on leave at home in Wilmington, North Carolina, he meets Savannah. They soon fall in love, but Johns time in the army post-9/11 weigh on the couples relationship. Review There is, unfortunately, not much more to say about the book other than its a predictable love story.Ã Dear JohnÃ has a pretty formulaic plot. Sparks writing is smooth and easy, but the characters are not memorable or complex. Furthermore, the love story is not very realistic. That being said, the characters are likable, if not particularly nuanced, and Johns relationship with his father creates a nice subplot. Although Sparks is one of the first to set the age-old boy meets girl love story in the modern, post-9/11 world, he does not delve into how the war affects the characters. InÃ Dear John, it could be any war keeping them apart. This specific war is not important. Overall,Ã Dear JohnÃ is aÃ quick, easy read that is not painful but also not extremely enjoyable to read. If you needÃ some beach reading, go ahead and borrow it. It will give you a few hours ofÃ escape if nothing else. Recommended for those who like sappy romantic comedies, and at times tragedies, but not for those who like a little meat in their reading.Ã If you like previous books by Sparks, you will probably enjoyÃ Dear John.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Essentials of Negotiation - Essay Example Ã Describe your negotiation style. My negotiation style tends to be integrative and principled. My primary strength is that I have a good motive in seeking to obtain a win/win situation for all parties; I want to define the goals and maximize the objectives for everyone within a discussion framework that has fair standards and a high level of integrity. The weakness in my position is that a dishonest bargainer could possibly use my desire for consensus to manipulate me through deceit or hardball tactics. 3a.1 I had two friends who engaged in an integrative bargain resulting in a win/win situation. ... The first had a vehicle with relatively high monthly payments. His objective was to get out from under the financial strain and he wasn't concerned with making a profit on the deal. My other friend didn't really need another car but liked our friend's vehicle more than the one what she was driving. They both wanted to make sure the other achieved sensitive to the other's position their objective. She sold her vehicle, bought his for the payoff and, after refinancing with the down payment from the sale of her car, obtained lower monthly payments for herself. Everyone ended up happy. 3a.2 A family friend was the chief financial officer for his company. In analyzing the corporate debt, he determined that a refinance of the mortgage would save thousands of dollars. He called in his banker and asked for a reduced interest rate. At first, the banker was reluctant, but when the CFO mentioned that he could find a better deal at a competing bank if he moved all of the company's accounts (savings, checking, and investments), the banker quickly conceded. The company got a reduced payment and the banker kept the all of the accounts, the loss of which would have cost far more than lowering the interest rate. Even though a concession was made, both parties ultimately won. 3b. Win/Lose 3b.1 One of my relatives knew an individual that had come into some very difficult financial conditions. That person wanted to sell their car to pay off a hospital bill. My relative knew exactly what the other person owed on the car, and hard balled them into taking a price that yielded a $500 profit by pulling out the cash and putting it on the hood.Ã Ã
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Society gender differences - Essay Example The present research paper concentrates on the works of Richard Rodriguez and Malcolm X in a comparative way in order to find out similarities and dissimilarities they present in their valuable writings. The works reveal the very fact that both the writers have depicted their views on the significance of education and learning in the life of individuals. Both the authors belong to divergent racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds with absolutely different parentage and socioeconomic status. In addition, both the writers, under study, had experienced quite different socialization process, atmosphere and environment during their learning process. Even then, the most dominant of the similarities between the two include their passion and eagerness regarding quench their thirst for knowledge and wisdom by studying more and more and seeking new dimensions of awareness, vigilance and insight from the books offering depth of knowledge and wisdom to them. Both Rodriguez and Malcolm X have identified the existence of racial discrimination in their society, where the population as well as ethnic group, other than the White Anglo Saxon Population (WASP), is looked down upon by the overwhelming white US majority. Richard Rodriguez, in his essay the Achievement of Desire exclaims how his Spanish background had become a grave hurdle on his way to learning and seeking knowledge offered at American schools in English language. Similarly, Malcolm X also views education as the way of broadening one's views and eliminating racial prejudice and biased attitude towards other groups and communities of societies, though he also looks annoyed and irritated because of the hatred of the white people towards the minority races, particularly towards the blacks.Human societies, in all parts of the globe, have been divergent since ever; this diversification is on the foundation of caste, class, clan, community, region, religion, race, gender and socioecon omic status. Though all the above-given bases of differentiation polarize the societies into different groups, yet racial background and socioeconomic status play the most influential role in unraveling the individuals from one another. Hence, all man's belongings, schooling, education, financial activities and life-style determines to which class he has come from. An individual can facilitate himself and his family on the foundation of his resources. If he is well-to-do and earns money in plenty, he can offer his family a comfortable and luxurious life. On the other hand, if he has to work hard to make both ends meet, his family will also sure to suffer and is forced to lead a miserable and sorrowful life. Both Rodriguez and Malcolm X discuss the problem of social discrimination in their works; Jonathan Kozol's "Savage Inequalities" also portrays the same while keeping special attention towards school children belonging to different socioeconomic status.Jonathan Kozol is a renowned American writer, researcher, educationalist and reformer. In his award-winner book "Savage Inequalities", he has described the pathetic condition of innocent school children at the school
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Philadelphia Snacks Breadsticks - Essay Example Another ingredient, water is considered the most abundant and versatile substance on Earth. Water is used in a variety of ways in food preparation, processing, and preservation (Bender & Bender, 2005). Salt is also known as sodium chloride. It is the second most widely used food additive in the world. Salt is primarily used for food seasoning and preservation (Joachim, 2002). Locust bean gum is also called carob bean gum, is extracted from the seeds of the carob tree which grows in Mediterranean countries. It is used as a thickener and gelling agent for various food products. Locust bean gum works well with carrageenan and is usually combined with the latter (Khan & Abourashed 2010). The ingredient carrageenan is also called seaweed extract. It turns into a gel once dissolved in water and is commonly used in milk products (Tarte, 2008). Wheat flour is the flour obtained by grinding wheat kernels and recovering the ground endosperms after removing the bran and germ (Sertori, 2008). Ve getable fat is an edible fat composed of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil which contains no water (Smith & Hui, 2004). Wheat fiber is a dietary fiber sourced from wheat bran (Sertori, 2008). Meanwhile, barley malt extract is the sweetener derived from barley during the malting process (Roberts & Greenwood, 2011). Yeast is a leavening agent derived from the one-celled microorganism (International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods, 2005). Wheatgerm is extracted from wheat kernels and a source of fiber (Sertori, 2008).
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Techniques for Evaluation of Evidences in Forensic Casework Modern Techniques Used For the Evaluation of Evidences Collected In Forensic Casework: A Review Abstract In the modern era, many technological developments have been made in the field of science as well as forensic science which stand powerful and strong to overcome the issues involved in forensic casework. In this review, three emerging techniques have been discussed that proved helpful for the forensic analysis. One of them is Stereo lithography which is being used for prototyping purposes which involves fabrication of three dimensional structures (3D modeling) for this purpose some complex mathematical measurements, biological and chemical informational data is required. At the second number, Ambient mass spectrometry (ambient MS) comes which is also a very emerging and powerful method for the identification of explosives materials even at the nanogram levels, for the analysis of pharmaceutical products (e.g. tablets), authentication of ink and document, identification of biological fluids such as urine and blood plasma and also for the testing of metabolites present in breathÃ¢â¬â ¢s air. Third most widely used technology for glass fragments analysis is Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), even for the trace evidence collected from the criminal site. Keywords: Forensic casework, Prototyping, 3D modeling, Ambient MS, metabolites. Introduction These three powerful techniques are mentioned below: Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): Glass elements represent a very valuable class of evidence, even in trace amount. Many other materials that present in trace amount, they are simply moved from victim to defendant and ignored very simply by the accused. While in case of broken glass particles, even minor particles can be proved very helpful to find important ways of solving the hurdle like the direction and speed of the bullets and their impact on the glass that is being analyzed(1). LA-ICP-MS is a very sensitive machine that converts the glass materials into very small size, even up to their atomic size.(2) After that the matching is done of the sample that collected from the crime site. Then the similarities are checked and make the statement about the accused person, on the basis of the evaluation of evidence, collected from a crime site. LA-ICP-MS has another application of detection of non-metals and metals, even they are traces at very min or quantity(3). Stereo lithography: Rapid Prototyping technique that uses a laser beam to develop a sharp image of layer by solidifying or hardening of the photopolymer material(4). It develops images and specific 3D models by combining with Computer Aided Designing (CAD) that includes 3D confirmation point exchanging. In this way it helps to create images.(5) (6) For the analysis of different evidences, different operational 3D models are available. One of them is prototyping that is a very popular and accurate model for the manufacturing of images at high levels(7). CAD plans combine with this machine to generate 3D models in layer by layer sequence.(5, 8) Laser sintering and many other imaging processes are available like stereo lithography which involves the flow or movement of photopolymers like a jet in an inkjet apparatus.(9, 10) Ambient mass spectrometry: Ambient MS technology has been under considerations in this study, as it is the very rapidly emerging method for the identification of surface directly regardless any treatment before analyzing(11). This technology is very speedy and gives accurate results and facilitates as it involves no purification and removal of sample for the surface analysis. At Crime site many evidences present and different identification analysis are being done to study the toxicology and chemical residue concentrations. For this purpose desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)(12, 13),direct analysis in real time (DART)(14), plasma assisted desorption ionization (PADI)(15)and extractive electrospray surface ionization (EESI)(16), techniques play their important part. Working Principle of Technologies: LA-ICP-MS: This process is carried out by ICP-MS machine which involves three steps procedure(17), firstly the sample introduction mechanism in which the sample is being installed to the apparatus, and then the generated ions transfer into plasma and interface tube and last step involves the detection by using mass spectrometer detector.(17)MS was firstly built for the liquid sample analysis but now this technology is being used for gaseous as well as solid materials. A decade ago, solution nebulization (SN) mechanism was being used,(2, 3, 18) often for the introduction of sample into the MS machine for forensic analysis but it involved very lengthy and time consuming protocol , so to overcome this issue now a days ,sample introduction is being done by laser ablation (LA)(19-22). To generate ions of the sample, laser beam is used that focused on the analyzing sample .After that generated ions or ablated elements are further passed out to the next chamber, termed as plasma and MS interface region, digestion and ionization processes are being carried out for the sample in it. At the third stage for the isotopic and elemental examination, the generated ions by second chamber are transferred to the mass spectrometer detector. Then MS detector collects the ions and separates them on the basis of their charge to mass ratio and builds an analysis on that base identification of the unknown samples is done. Accordingly, solution nebulization (SN) requires high amount of sample to being analyzed even in milligrams (23-27), while some micrograms of the sample in quantity are just enough for laser ablation (LA) method. The main advantage of using laser ablation (LA) is no risk of contamination and loss of sample. Through a study, it is confirmed that laser ablation required only minimum 0.9 Ã ¼g mass of sample for forensic glass analysis, while for SN system this amount range exceeded up to 500 Ã ¼g to 2000 Ã ¼g. Stereo lithography: Exposure of specific lengths of radioactive rays to the liquid polymer can converted it into the solid phase very quickly in this replication based process.(28) Ultra violet (UV) of very intensity is being fallen on the liquid layer of the photopolymer. By the UV light focusing onto the sample, some chemical changes occur that converts the liquid sample into the solid phase. This process involves the drawing of layers with the use of UV light onto the liquid sample surface(29). The conversion of liquid phase into solid phase is due to polymerization of the sample by UV light. This technique completes its process with the combination of different computer soft wares like CAD and CAE. Different types of liquid photopolymers are currently available that are being utilized for stereo lithography.(5) Many polymers are very strong, can resist in high temperature condition and low moisture situations. Oxygen inhibition is the big short coming that is being faced in prototyping technique by acrylates which are cured by UV rays. With the use of cationic and polymerization,(30) the hybrids are become able to test different types of liquid samples and this test involves the use of UV light. FDA gave approval to use some materials for these purposes are epoxy based material, rubbers and silicon like materials etc. Many other materials like nylon, polycarbonate, ABS and some type of resins are available in the market that can be used in the stereo lithography apparatus. In 1988, this system was developed for the forensic analysis. Ambient mass spectrometry: Cooks and co-researchers developed an ambient desorption method that involves desorption and ionization of sample collected from crime site, with the help of electrospray machine. For the identification of biological samples(31, 32), environmental study(33) and to check the pharmaceuticals products validity(34), in the field of forensics very modified techniques are settled that show accurate results, one of them is DESI as shown in Figure 1.(a)(35-37). For the chemical residues analysis as well as drugs of accused, a new approach was developed alongside the DESI termed as DART by Cody and his partners, although DESI is a very sensitive and accurate method(38). Ionization of particles is done by the ejection of nitrogen and helium light onto the surface in DART method as shown in Figure 1. (b). McCoustra developed a new emerging method that ionizes the material with the use of plasma source, termed as PADI as shown in Figure 1. (c). Zenobi, a scientist settled an instrument known as EESI to ionize the materials or particles with the use of directly inserted gal with full speed into the electro spray region of the mass spectrometry apparatus, in which the desorption of particles is done by the continuous flow of gas and this method helps to analyze the liquids and other solutions(39). Ã Ã (a) (b) (c) Figure1. Schematics of source: (a) DESI (b) DART (c) PADI Applications in Forensics Forensic glass Analysis: Recently, FBI and other forensics groups have been involved in the usage of LA-ICP-MS as it has major application of analysis of broken glass, collected from a crime site, although this technology requires very big amount to run. Stereo lithography: It has current issues related applications like to study the anatomy of the body shape, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very useful in surgeries development (e.g. orthopedic) (5).For the development of prosthetic devices , stereo lithographyÃ¢â¬â¢s use have been increased quite prominently . MRI data analysis and identification of bone injury produced by trauma have been carried out in recent time by this method. Identification of metabolites from breath: As the breath includes so many types of metabolites through which a lot of information about an accused can be generated. Metabolites can give information about meals and recently use of drug or alcohol by the suspect and it can also recognize the biomarkers(40). Ink analysis and document verification: The identification of inks used in writing of the documents or any other confidential report can prove the authenticity of the document in the law court. Ingredients of ink like organic solvents are separated using liquid chromatography and then further analyzed by mass spectrometry(34, 41). Conclusion In this article, we review the possible potential of different forensic analysis techniques for the evaluation of evidences, collected from criminal site. LA technique shows powerful potential for forensic glass analysis(42). DESI clearly illustrates the identification of biological samples, environmental study and to check the pharmaceuticals products validity(34). Stereo lithographic techniques are more precisely and accurately used for MRI data analysis(5). These emerging techniques will also play their key role to solve the issues related to forensic casework. . References 1.Suzuki Y, Sugita R, Suzuki S, MARUMO Y. Forensic Discrimination of Bottle Glass by Refractive Index Measurement and Analysis of Trace Elements with ICP-MS. Analytical sciences. 2000;16(11):1195-8. 2.Rodriguez-Celis E, Gornushkin I, Heitmann U, Almirall J, Smith B, Winefordner J, et al. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a tool for discrimination of glass for forensic applications. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008;391(5):1961-8. 3.Castro W, Trejos T, Naes B, Almirall JR. Comparison of high-resolution and dynamic reaction cell ICP-MS capabilities for forensic analysis of iron in glass. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008;392(4):663-72. 4.Joe Lopes A, MacDonald E, Wicker RB. Integrating stereolithography and direct print technologies for 3D structural electronics fabrication. 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The transfer of glassÃ¢â¬âpart 1: Transfer of glass to individuals at different distances. Forensic science international. 1998;93(2):167-74. 18.Trejos T, Almirall JR. Effect of fractionation on the forensic elemental analysis of glass using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2004;76(5):1236-42. 19.Mokgalaka N, GardeaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Torresdey J. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: principles and applications. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. 2006;41(2):131-50. 20.Watling R, Lynch B, Herring D. Use of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometryfor Fingerprinting Scene of Crime Evidence. J Anal At Spectrom. 1997;12(2):195-203. 21.Schmidt T, Surmann J, Stephanowitz H, Hoffmann E. Identification of pharmaceutical glasses by laser ablation ICP-MS. Die Pharmazie. 2001;56(11):852-6. 22.Trejos T, Montero S, Almirall JR. Analysis and comparison of glass fragments by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and ICP-MS. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2003;376(8):1255-64. 23.Becker JS, Dietze H-J, McLean JA, Montaser A. Ultratrace and isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry using a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer. Analytical chemistry. 1999;71(15):3077-84. 24.Sharp BL. Pneumatic nebulisers and spray chambers for inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. A review. Part 2. Spray chambers. J Anal At Spectrom. 1988;3(7):939-63. 25.Kahen K, Jorabchi K, Gray C, Montaser A. Spatial mapping of droplet velocity and size for direct and indirect nebulization in plasma spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2004;76(24):7194-201. 26.Mora J, Maestre S, Hernandis V, TodolÃâÃ ± JL. Liquid-sample introduction in plasma spectrometry. 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Desorption electrospray ionization of explosives on surfaces: sensitivity and selectivity enhancement by reactive desorption electrospray ionization. Analytical chemistry. 2005;77(21):6755-64. 36.Justes DR, Talaty N, Cotte-Rodriguez I, Cooks RG. Detection of explosives on skin using ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Chem Commun. 2007(21):2142-4. 37.Cotte-Rodriguez I, Hernandez-Soto H, Chen H, Cooks RG. In situ trace detection of peroxide explosives by desorption electrospray ionization and desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Analytical chemistry. 2008;80(5):1512-9. 38.Gross JH. Ambient mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry: Springer; 2011. p. 621-49. 39.Takats Z, Wiseman JM, Cooks RG. Ambient mass spectrometry using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI): instrumentation, mechanisms and applications in forensics, chemistry, and biology. Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2005;40(10):1261-75. 40.Zhu L, Gamez G, Chen HW, Huang HX, Chingin K, Zenobi R. RealÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã time, onÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã line monitoring of organic chemical reactions using extractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2008;22(19):2993-8. 41.Ifa D, Gumaelius L, Eberlin L, Manicke N, Cooks R. Forensic analysis of inks by imaging desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. Analyst. 2007;132(5):461-7. 42.Dodds AJ, Pollock EM, Land DP. Forensic Glass Analysis by LA-ICP-MS: Assessing the Feasibility of Correlating Windshield Composition and Supplier. 2010.
Friday, October 25, 2019
The Public Reception of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Upon its publication in 1884, Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was met with mixed reviews. Some reviewers called it flat, trashy, and irreverent. Others called it Twain's best work yet, hailing his humor and style throughout the novel. Though obscure at first, reviews began to appear in many newspapers throughout the country as more and more became interested in the novel as a result of these reviews. Huckleberry Finn was published at a time when the nation was deeply concerned about the effects of literature on young minds. Dime novels appeared in abundance, and had moved from western stories to more modern stories, like those of Peck's Bad Boy and His Pa, published in 1883. The main character in these stories was a young prankster, who routinely succeeded in causing pain to adults, namely his father. Stories like these were considered dangerous to young boys who could model their behavior after the characters in the stories. Huck Finn was seen by many critics as another addition to the growing list of bad-boy stories published in the 1880's. The fact that it was written by an already well-known author added insult to injury for many. The attack on Twain's humor was immediate. The New York World published a review which said: Were Mark Twain's reputation as a humorist less well founded and established, we might say that this cheap and pernicious stuff is conclusive evidence that its author has no claim to be ranked with Artemus Ward, Sydney Smith, Dean Swift, John Hay, or any other recognized humorist above the grade of the author of that outrageous fiction, "Peck's Bad Boy." One critic in the Boston Evening Traveller called it "flat... ...ne of the strongest points of the novel is that it "teaches it lessons by implication, not by preaching; and literature is at it best when it is an imitation of life and not an excuse for instruction." The humor in the novel is also complimented, and it is this humor which contributes to the instructiveness of the novel. The review ends with the statement that the "story is capital reading." Huckleberry Finn was met with both positive and negative reviews when it was published. Those positive reviews praised the work of Mark Twain, encouraging the audience to read the novel. Those negative reviews also encouraged the audience to read the novel by stating the wickedness of it as a whole, therefore influencing people to read it just to see what it contained. Though for some novels mixed reviews mean smaller sales, for Huck Finn, every review lead to sales of novel.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
What is Diwali? The name Diwali is a contraction of Ã¢â¬Å"DeepavaliÃ¢â¬ ; this is also means The Festival of Lights or Row of Lamps. This is one of the most important festivals in Hinduism and marks the attainment of moksha .Diwali falls on one new moon right between Mid-October and Mid-November, it is celebrated for five (5) days according to the Hindu calendar. This is believed that the time of transition from darkness to light-the light that empowers them to commit themselves to good deeds which brings them closer to divinity. Why is the festival celebrated? This festival is to show how good a triumph over evil and it marks the end of harvest season in most of India. This is also a time for new endeavors, and many people clean their homes and open their windows and doors cause it gives them luck and good fortune during Diwali. This is also has legend within its origin, Prince Rama wife was kidnapped by a ten-headed demon and with the help of Hanuman (Monkey god), Prince Rama rescues his wife and on their way home the people of the village light rows of lamps which guided Rama and Sita back from the forest of Ayodhya. Diwali Celebrates the return of Rama and Sita, Rama was Crowned King. Describe the rituals that take place in Diwali? It is traditional to do a spring house cleaning to welcome the Goddesses Lakshmi into their home. In the evenings many Hindus hold prayer in their homes (puja), people decorate their homes with diyas surrounding the house, and the lights are left burning all night so that when Lakshmi may feel welcomed when entered. Firecrackers are burst in order to drive away the evil spirits, during Diwali the occupants wear new clothes and share sweets and other snacks among family, friends and the adoring public. They also draw patterns on the floor with a mixture of rice, flour and water and this is called Rangoli. Also whosoever gambled on this day would prosper throughout the ensuring year. They also exchange a certain greeting to each other Ã¢â¬Å"Shubh DeepavaliÃ¢â¬ which is a traditional greeting which means Ã¢â¬Å"have an auspicious DiwaliÃ¢â¬ . Identify the God or Goddesses associated in Diwali? Diwali is held in honor of the goddesses Lakshmi, she is the goddesses of wealth and prosperity. They pray to her to give them luck in the following year and they honor lord Ganesh the symbol of auspiciousness and wisdom that brings them good fortune throughout the year.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Running head: IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850Ã¢â¬â¢S 1 Irish Immigration in 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s Dorothy Mathews Eth/125 March 7, 2010 Henry Williams IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850Ã¢â¬â¢S 2 Irish Immigration in 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s The line of ancestry that I came from is the Irish and English and Dutch. I am not certain about the dates, but I am pretty sure that they emigrated around the years 1850 to 1870. The Irish left the island of Ireland because of the potato famine that overtook their country. Even though undefined, Irish emigrants faced persecution from other foreigners because they were under educated and some were Irish Catholics, and also from little knowledge of what industrialization was. The greatest number of emigrants was from around 1850 through the late 1870Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Irish had learned to farm potatoes, because of the productivity and market prices. Towards the end of 1845 the potato crops caught a fungus which destroyed the crops in the ground and also in the storage bins. This turned them into a blackened putrid mass. (Immigration and Immigrants, 2000). By the year 1846 the entire crop was destroyed. In the interim, more than a million people died from famine and poverty. This began the greatest influx of emigrants from Ireland. After reaching the United States by sea, the Irish stayed mostly in a city environment because the majority of them knew nothing but farming and the land. They did not have the finances or the ease of buying land to farm. They stayed in the cities and most of them ended up living in the slums with some Chinese and African Americans. They could not get jobs because of their education and because they knew nothing of factories and actually living in cities. Most were used to living on farms and farming the land. IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850Ã¢â¬â¢S 3 Most of the Irish immigrants faced many prejudices and segregation. The nativists and the other immigrants were afraid of them because of their religion and beliefs. They were forced to live in slums and in poverty because they could not find jobs. The only work they could find was in servitude and menial labor jobs. They were under educated and poor. The Irish were thought to be stupid and ignorant, so they stayed to themselves. The Irish emigrants entered a land with new social and cultural differences. At this time the African Americans and Asian Americans were involved in disputes, along with the European Americans. Add to this the disruptions between the Catholics and Protestants and there was not much peace in the neighborhoods. During this time, they developed political partisanships which brought into line a group called the Know Nothing Party and later the American Protective Association (APA). Neither of these parties lasted for long, but the Irish were later associated with the new Democratic Party. Also during this time, Irish immigrant soldiers played a big part in the Civil War during the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg (Immigration and Immigrants, 2000). Irish Americans also were involved in disturbances against the Chinese on the west coast which eventually led to Chinese American banishment from America. During this time when the Irish immigrated to America, they suffered from many discriminations, including segregation, racism, and redlining. They were stopped from buying properties, because no one wanted to sell to them. They did not want them in their neighborhoods, or shopping where they shop. They were thought to be ignorant, and beneath the mainstream of people and only good for menial positions. IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850Ã¢â¬â¢S 4 By the end of the 19th century, because of all the negativity that they had experienced by coming to America, the Irish had solidified their communities and turned back to the Church. The catholic churches in Boston, Massachusetts grew and were able to build and renovate many churches. The Irish families had learned new jobs, and between all the members of these families, they contributed to the growth of the Church in many cities. Soon the Irish American Catholics were associated with the Democratic party. In the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1890Ã¢â¬â¢s, the Irish Americans elected quite a few officials to different positions. Although the Irish Americans were undefined when they arrived in the United States, they assimilated into the country and eventually grew into strong and eager Americans. Most of them came from poor families, but with strong visions and many strong backs, and resolution, they formed strong bonds and strong communities. They leave a long legacy of pride and ambition. Somewhere along the line they married into other groups and other races, and from these came good Americans. I am proud to be among them. In answer to your final question: I identify more with the mainstream American culture, but I celebrate St. PatrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Day and wear the green. I have never been to Ireland, but that is one of my fondest wishes. I am proud to be associated with the Irish in America. In my ancestry, somewhere down the line they married with someone of English descent and also someone of Dutch/German descent. This Emigration was 150 years ago, so the lineage has been mixed with a variety of races, since then. IRISH IMMIGRATION IN 1850Ã¢â¬â¢S 5 References Immigration and Immigrants. (2000). In Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com/entry/galeus/immigration_and_ immigrants. Voters and Voting. (2000). In Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com/entry/galeus/voters_and_voting.